Cervical Polyps: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Surgery, Diagnosis


Cervical polyps are basically lumps that are seen on the cervical canal, the passage that connects the uterus. They are often seen in grey, red or purple color. Their come in varying shapes and forms such as fingers, bulbs, or even thin stems. In terms of size, they can vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Almost all cervical polyps are non-cancerous however only 0.2 to 1.5% can become cancerous which is very rare.

Cervical polyp

Dr. Dimple Doshi at Vardaan Hospital; believes prevention is better than cure, and thus apart from the precise treatment guidelines; preventive measures are an essential part of our consultations with the patients who have either had it or want to know more about it.

These are seen very often. They are mostly seen in women over the age of 20 who have given birth to multiple children. In contrast, these are rarely seen in young girls who have just begun their periods. 

What Are the Causes of Cervical Polyps?

The reasons for such occurrences is not yet fully understood but it can be attributed to one of the following factors

  • Infection in the cervical canal
  • Persistent inflammation
  • Unusual response to the hormone estrogen
  • Blockage in the blood vessels near the cervix
  • Chemicals that show similar activity to estrogen. e.g phthalates

The types of cervical polyps are based on their place of origin

  • Endocervical polyp: These originate typically from the cervical glands in the endocervix.
  • Ectocervical polyp: These originate from the external surface layer of the cervical layer within the ectocervix.

The symptoms of cervical polyps are as follows

  • More vaginal bleeding than what is seen normally
  • Bleeding or spotting after sexual activity
  •  Bleeding even after menopause
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Discharge saw from vagina which may smell due to presence of infection

Polyps can be easily observed by your gynecologist during a routine examination. Your gynecologist will then take a tissue sample or in other words, a biopsy can be performed. These can then be sent to a laboratory for further clarification on whether these cells are benign or whether they show some abnormal cells which could be signs of neoplasm or cancer.

Sometimes the cervical polyps may go away on its own by detaching from the site. If you see symptoms that are caused by cervical polyps then it becomes important to remove them. There are many methods that can be used to remove polyps like

  • Detaching the polyp off the base so as to remove it
  • Using a surgical string to bind the polyp at the base and then cutting it off

Some side effects that occur after treatment are as follows

  • Light pain
  • Light cramps
  • Blood spots from the vagina

Cervical polyps cannot be stopped from occurring but you can adopt the following steps to prevent cervical polyps

  • Take medicines for controlling infections
  • Undergo regular pelvic examinations
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