An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled pouch (sac) on or within the ovary. Most young women develop small and vanishing ovarian cysts at one point in their life, and about 8% of them grow large enough to cause problems. Ovarian cysts may also be present in about 16% of women after menopause; when they require thorough evaluation.
Ovarian cysts may be either totally asymptomatic and harmless and just a chance finding on sonography done for other purpose or they cause agonizing pain due to twisting; may make a woman‘s chance of getting pregnant difficult or maybe having an increased risk of turning into cancer.
Ovarian cysts are of many types; the majority of them do not require any treatment and can be just observed. While the noncancerous ovarian cysts which require surgery are quite amenable to treatment by laparoscopy. Dr. Dimple Doshi at NABH accredited Vardaan Hospital is an expert for ovarian cysts like dermoid cysts, endometriotic cysts or chocolate cysts, and other cysts. Dr. Dimple Doshi has experience of treating ovarian cysts by laparoscopy with maximum preservation of ovarian function which carries so much significance as ovaries are extremely important for the general health of women; their feminity and their ability to get pregnant in the future.
Dr. Dimple Doshi at Vardaan Hospital; believes prevention is better than cure, and thus apart from the precise treatment guidelines; preventive measures are an essential part of our consultations with the patients who have either had it or want to know more about it.
Functional ovarian cysts: ( The ovarian cyst which develops due to ovulation process.)
1. Follicular cysts
2. Corpus luteal cyst
3. Theca lutein cyst
Non functional cyst: (The ovarian cyst which does not develop as a result of ovarian function)
1. Chocolate cysts
2. Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst
3. Dermoid cyst
4. Serous cystadenoama cyst
5. Mucinous cystadenoma
6. Paraovarian cysts
7. Borderline tumors
Many ovarian cysts may not cause any symptoms.
The symptomatic ovarian cysts may cause:
1. Lower abdominal pain
2. Pain during sexual intercourse.
3. Irregular periods
4. Fullness, heaviness, pressure or bloating in the lower abdomen.
5. Sudden sharp pain in lower abdomen if ovarian cyst ruptures or gets twisted. . Twisting of an ovarian cyst is an emergency condition which if not treated on time, may lead to serious consequences.
6. Frequency of urine or difficulty with bowel movements due to pressure by a large ovarian cyst
7. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting.
1. Ovarian cyst can be diagnosed by regular physical examination by your gynecologist. Your gynecologist will do the internal check-up and may feel the lump in the pelvis, and thus the presence of an ovarian cyst is suspected.
2. Ultrasonography will exactly measure the size and the type of ovarian cyst.
3. Still if there is any diagnostic difficulty about the nature of the cyst and for the confirmation of its noncancerous type, further investigation like CT scan or MRI may be performed.
4. Special blood reports like serum Ca 125, CEA, HE4, ROMA index are also other tests that can differentiate a benign from a cancerous ovarian cyst.
No, you cannot prevent functional ovarian cysts if you are ovulating. If you get ovarian cysts often, your doctor may prescribe hormonal birth control pills to stop you from ovulating. This will help lower your risk of getting new cysts.
The condition known as PCOS is preventable by adopting a healthier life style with an emphasis on nutritious diet and exercise.
Ovarian cyst surgery by open method:
Open surgery for ovarian cyst allow your surgeon to feel the ovarian cyst and surrounding structures; and allows your surgeon to remove the ovarian cyst without spilling inside the abdomen.
Anesthesia: Spinal or general
Incision: 5 to 10 cm long
After the patient is anesthetized and given the incision; your surgeon will carefully lift the ovarian cyst after cordoning off the area from the underlying structures ; enucleate it completely and remove without spilling any contents. The ovarian cyst after removal is sent for histopathological examination.
Sometimes after opening up the abdomen; if there is a suspicion of the cyst being cancerous; a special test called frozen section is done and based on that instant report of the ovarian cst being cancerous; the decision to perform the extensive surgery is taken on table.
You will be allowed to have sips of water followed by light diet from the next day
You will be able to start walking from the next day. Stitch removal is done after a week . And total recovery time is 6 to 10 weeks.
Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the ovarian cyst surgery due to its minimally invasive benefit.
Anesthesia: General anesthesia
Incision: 3 to 4 tiny incisions or holes on the abdomen.
After you are anesthetized, your surgeon will inflate the abdomen with carbon dioxide gas with the help of a special needle to see the organs clearly. And then through tiny incision laparoscope will be introduced. A specially designed endobag will be introduced through the other incision and either the cyst is enucleated intact or after controlled spillage of the contents inside the endobag and removed through the side incision..
Sometimes it is not possible to enucleate the ovarian cyst completely as in case of a chocolate cyst; where simple drainage and cauterizing the base of the cyst is done .
You will be allowed to have sips of water followed by light diet after 2 hours of surgery
You will be advised to walk in the room 4 to 6 hours after the surgery.Early mobilization is the main benefit of laparoscopy.It ensures faster recovery .
You may be discharged on the same day. You will be advised to perform all routine light activities once you are discharged. You will be asked to avoid heavy and strenuous activities for 2 weeks after the surgery.